Dispersed Nation. Moldovans all over the world
BSSB.BE kas.de/ 11.05.2016
Migration from the Republic of Moldova is a relatively recent phenomenon, as the opportunity for people to leave the country has only really existed since the fall of the Iron Curtain and the Republic’s gaining of independence. However, many Moldovan citizens have already taken advantage of this opportunity and have left their homeland. Economic, social and political factors have been the driving force behind this migration flow. This huge drain on the workforce has led to lower production, increased social pressures, families being torn apart, demographic changes, and changes to the whole political structure.
Migration is not a new issue in the Republic of Moldova’s political arena, but it is a highly charged one. Most emigrants leave for economic reasons. The Republic of Moldova is the poorest country in Europe and is ranked 99th of 169 countries worldwide that are listed in the Human Development Index 2010.
A mass emigration movement started at the end of the 1990s and reached its highpoint in 2005 with around 400,000 people leaving the country. This number is based on a survey, but if reports from the Moldovan border police are to be believed, the figure was in fact nearer to 750,000. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) estimates that the true number of emigrants was around 600,000
Labour Migration “Labour migration” refers to migration in or out of a country in order to take up employment in another country which is not the migrant’s country of origin. This could also be referred to as “labour market-driven migration”. There is a strong tendency with this type of migration for people to move to large towns and cities. Three-quarters of all Moldovan migrants who moved to find work now live in 10 major cities (including Moscow, Rome, Saint Petersburg, Istanbul and Odessa)
There is a strong tendency with this type of migration for people to move to large towns and cities. Three-quarters of all Moldovan migrants who moved to find work now live in 10 major cities (including Moscow, Rome, Saint Petersburg, Istanbul and Odessa)
- Male migrants looking for work tend to prefer Russia, the Ukraine, Spain and Portugal, where they mostly get jobs in the construction industry.
- Women on the other hand tend to opt for Italy and Turkey where they can find work in domestic service or in retirement and nursing homes.
- Many Moldovan citizens believe that the number of people leaving the country to look for work will grow significantly, irrespective of changes in demographic factors, GDP figures or the amount of money sent back home.
“Push factors” for those leaving Moldova to look for work include the uncertain political situation and economic factors that have led to high youth unemployment, low incomes and a low standard of living.
The collapse of the Soviet Union was what prompted many people to leave the country in search of a better life, because the Republic of Moldova’s economy cannot survive without external support. Moldova’s rural population in particular relies on development cooperation.
In many villages in southern Moldova there is a lack of essentials such as food, drinking water and clothing. The number of people who have to get by on a dollar a day or less has risen significantly since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Elite Migration The migration of the country’s elite is an economic and political problem for the Republic of Moldova. The country is losing its most valuable scientists, engineers and business people.
- This kind of brain drain could also become a problem for Russia and the EU. Both sides have a vested interest in the educational elite of their neighbouring countries staying where they are, as this is the only way to create stability in the region. Russia, and to a lesser extent the EU, continue to act as mediators and guarantors of peace in the Transnistria conflict.
- In Moldova there are plenty of vacancies for qualified professionals but there is a dearth of young people to fill them. Low salaries amongst teachers, professors, trainers and vocational college teachers has resulted in many people opting to either work in industry or leave the country.
As a result many schools have insufficient teachers or trainers or the quality of the teaching is very low due to a lack of books or technical equipment. This means that it is very difficult for low-income people to achieve any kind of social advancement through study or vocational training
While many people think of au-pair work as an opportunity for young people to enjoy some kind of cultural exchange or improve their language skills by staying with a host family, for many young people it also offers the possibility of entering the EU legally for one year, something they would otherwise have little or no chance of doing legally, due to restrictive immigration policies for those living in non-EU countries.
For a variety of reasons many au-pairs hope they will be able to extend their stays. Some want to study or do some kind of training, while others are hoping to break away from traditional gender roles or employment opportunities.10 Many young Moldovans with limited prospects see being an au-pair as the only way to get into an EU country legally, with a view to then trying to increase their financial or cultural capital in order to improve their future prospects.
Marriage migration into EU countries has always existed, but the numbers have fluctuated over the years. For the Republic of Moldova, this type of migration really started to take off at the beginning of the 1990s. According to the newspaper Komsomolskaya, 9,000 Moldovan women married men from other countries in 2006 alone. “In 2009 almost 16,000 marriage certificates were issued to couples in the Republic of Moldova where one of the partners was from another country. We can safely assume that the figure for the last ten years is at least ten times this amount” claimed the paper.
The possibilities for circular migration increased for the people of Moldova when Bulgaria and Romania became EU members. flow continues to grow and could have a significant impact on Moldova’s demographics.
Moldovan politicians may well have put the issue at the top of their agenda, but so far nothing has really been done about it. According to Moldova’s own statistics, Moldovan women tend to marry men from the Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Italy, Germany, Portugal and Greece, which are also the countries where the majority of migrant workers now live.
Dealing with illegal migration has become a key issue for both politicians and the media in the Republic of Moldova. The main focus of the debate is the sheer number of illegal migrants from such a small country.
For many Moldovans, breaking the law is the price they have to pay if they want to work abroad. They often have no chance of legally travelling to their country of choice, settling there and starting work. It is estimated that up to 95 per cent of all Moldovans who live abroad have settled in their host county illegally in order to work.20 On average it costs a Moldovan migrant around 500 Euros21 get a work permit, visa and all the necessary paperwork for their host country.
Euroscepticism Geopolitics Nations Video Conflicts
* jurnal.md – Global sentiment in the Moldovan politics –
The Republic of Moldova needs reforms, and the Government have to assume itself engagements. Law must be one for all, the politicians should think more about national interest. Now does not matter the definitions with which you juggle at the meetings with the partners – it matter whether you are pro-Moldova, whether you are pro-your own people, whether you are pro-democratic society
* VIDEO – Why Journalism Is Important: Christopher Hitchens on Media– Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky proposed a concrete model for the filtering processes (biases) of mainstream media, especially in the United States, called the propaganda model. They tested this empirically and presented extensive quantified evidence supporting the model. Communication scholar Robert W. McChesney, inspired in part by the work of Chomsky and Herman, has linked the failures of the mainstream press primarily to corporate ownership, pro-corporate public policy, and the myth of “professional journalism.”