WWI. Only the tip of the iceberg
BSSB.BE pbs.org/ 05.08.2016
The after shocks of the earthquake we call the Great War are still being felt today, in the 21st century
In countless ways, World War I created the fundamental elements of 20th century history. Genocide emerged as an act of war. So did the use of poison gas on the battlefield. The international system was totally transformed. On the political right fascism came out of the war; on the left a communist movement emerged backed by the Soviet Union. Reluctantly, but unavoidably, America became a world power.
The British Empire reached its high point and started to unravel. Britain never recovered from the shock of war, and started her decline to the ranks of the second-class powers. At the peace conference of 1919, the German, Turkish, and Austro-Hungarian empires were broken up. New boundaries were drawn in Europe and the Middle East, boundaries — as in Iraq and Kuwait — which were still intact at the end of the century.
Even after Germany’s second defeat in 1945, the shadow of the Great War was still visible. Then came the shock waves of 1989-91, ending the “short 20th century,” an era that began with the great war and concluded with
by Jay Winter, Historian
“Terrorism was born well before the First World War. But its effects became worldwide in 1914. The assassination of the heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne created the diplomatic crisis that ultimately led to the war. So it’s the provocation effect of terrorism that I think was born in 1914.
In many ways the attack on the World Trade Center was a direct echo of that provocation. The intention was to bring about a military response that would in turn rebound against the power that responds. In 1914 that was the intention, the intention was to force Austria-Hungary into some kind of violent reaction that would ultimately be to its detriment. And that is indeed what happened.
“There is no way to understand what happened in Serbia and Bosnia [in the 90s] without going back to the extraordinary events on the 28th of June, 1914 when the heir apparent to the throne [Austria-Hungary], the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated.
A series of violent events followed that marked the civil war within the Balkan States becoming even more violent in the Second World War. And in turn, when the communist state of Yugoslavia unraveled in the 1990’s, some cynical politicians like Milosovich tried to go right back to 1914. … So the sequence of violent events in the 20th Century is like a fugue, with one instrument following another. And in the Serbian case, each one is worse than the one before.”
“The emergence of new members in the European Union has revived anxieties that would have been familiar to anybody a hundred years ago — of migration of Eastern Europeans to Western Europe — when many Polish and Russian based Jews and other ethnic minorities were seeking to escape from the relatively repressive regimes where they lived.
European politics are still in fact strongly influenced by hostilities to immigration… And whatever the rhetoric of European integration… the reality is that on issues like migration, national governments act with their perceived interests firmly in mind.”
“There are two ways of looking at genocide. The first is in terms of international warfare. And the other is in terms of domestic murder on a grand scale. The murder of the Armenians is both in 1915. It occurred in the context of total war, but it was also the policy of an independent state to eliminate inhabitants of its own population.
Now this precedent of a state killing its own citizens is one that Hitler used quite openly. And it is clearly what happens in Rwanda as well.
by Niall Ferguson, Historian
“1914-18 was one of the great watersheds in financial history. The United States emerged for the first time as the rival to Great Britain as a financial super power. Possibly even in some respects, the United States overtook Britain. … It’s the point at which the United States firmly ceases to be a debtor and becomes a creditor nation — the world’s banker.
“The idea of European economic integration and even the creation of a European Federation were in fact much discussed during the Great War. … The European Union we know today would not have surprised anybody who was seriously interested in the future of Europe in 1917.
… The idea that it would have to begin with a Franco-German pooling of economic interests, particularly in the Rhine rural area, the pooling of ore and coal, iron and steel interests, was in fact first floated immediately after the First World War by French policy makers and industrialists. … But it took a Second World War to show that this was the only viable way forward for Western Europe.”
“The language used to describe a totally unprecedented vision of mass death is found in the Great War. Nobody had any idea what was going to happen once war between industrialized countries broke out. … So the impossibility of understanding what was happening and the ways in which to refer to it in 1914-18 — and for years after — produced all kinds of poems, novels, memoirs
… September 11th is relatively close to us. It probably is going to take years for people to work out what it is that actually happened. … Traumatic memories can’t be configured right away. … 10 years, 15 years, 20 years down the line, some great works of imaginative literature and art will come to tell us the meaning of these [9/11] events.”
“I think we learned a great deal from the Great War. The first point is that as soon as international warfare is launched, nobody can predict the outcome. The second thing is that international war breeds civil war, and civil war is uglier than international war because there are no limits. We also learned that the technology of warfare expands much more rapidly than the capacity of political leaders to control it
And I think the final thing that the First World War taught us is that the easy access of individuals to democratic procedures is very fragile. Warfare suspends democracy. How high a price is victory? That’s a question we owe to the First World War. And the question is still with us today.”
Geopolitics Power Europe 1914 War Army Conflicts Crisis Youtube
* Youtube – Epic History: World War One – 1914. ‘World War One – 1914’ is the first of a five-part series covering the Great War. This episode covers the rival alliances that dominated Europe in the build-up to war, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, and the fatal gunshots at Sarajevo that led to the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
* Youtube – Apocalypse World War 1 1of5.
* Youtube – T he First World War – Ep 1 – To Arms. We’ll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened. The events ofJuly and early August 1914 are a classic case of “one thing led to another” – otherwise known as the treaty alliance system