PESCO. Breaking The Broken
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The participating Member States, Recalling that the Union is pursuing a common foreign and security policy based on the achievement of “an ever-increasing degree of convergence of Member States’ actions» (Art. 24 (2) TEU) and that the common security and defence policy (CSDP) is an integral part of the common foreign and security policy;
Considering that the common security and defence policy provides the Union with operational capacity drawing on civil and military assets and that the strengthening of the security and defence policy will require efforts by Member States in the area of capabilities;
Considering that PESCO could significantly contribute to fulfilling the EU’s Level of Ambition including with a view to the most demanding missions and operations and that it could facilitate the development of Member States’ defence capabilities through an intensive involvement in multinational procurement projects and with appropriate industrial entities including small and medium sized enterprises, and strengthen European defence cooperation, while making full use of the Treaties; Taking into account the objectives of permanent structured cooperation and Member States’ undertakings to achieve them as laid out in Protocol No. 10 on Permanent Structured Cooperation and referred to in Article 46 of the TEU;
Annex I — Principles of PESCO
1.“Permanent Structured Cooperation” is provided for in Articles 42 and 46 of the Treaty on European Union and Protocol No 10 to the Treaty. It can only be activated once and is established by a Council decision to be adopted by qualified majority, in order to bring together all willing Member States in the area of defence, “whose military capabilities fulfil higher criteria” and which have made “more binding commitments with a view to the most demanding missions” and operations.
- PESCO is an ambitious, binding and inclusive European legal framework for investments in the security and defence of the EU’s territory and its citizens. PESCO also provides a crucial political framework for all Member States to improve their respective military assets and defence capabilities through well-coordinated initiatives and concrete projects based on more binding commitments. Enhanced defence capabilities of EU Member States will also benefit NATO. They will strengthen the European pillar within the Alliance and respond to repeated demands for stronger transatlantic burden sharing.
- PESCO is a crucial step towards strengthening the common defence policy. It could be an element of a possible development towards a common defence should the Council by unanimous vote decide so (as provided for in article 42.2 TEU). A long term vision of PESCO could be to arrive at a coherent full spectrum force package — in complementarity with NATO, which will continue to be the cornerstone of collective defence for its members.
- We consider an inclusive PESCO as the most important instrument to foster common security and defence in an area where more coherence, continuity, coordination and collaboration are needed. European efforts to this end must be united, coordinated, and meaningful and must be based on commonly agreed political guidelines.
Annex II — List of ambitious and more binding common commitments in the five areas set out by Article 2 of Protocol No 10
“(a) cooperate, as from the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, with a view to achieving approved objectives concerning the level of investment expenditure on defence equipment, and regularly review these objectives, in the light of the security environment and of the Union’s international responsibilities.”
“(b) bring their defence apparatus into line with each other as far as possible, particularly by harmonising the identification of their military needs, by pooling and, where appropriate, specialising their defence means and capabilities, and by encouraging cooperation in the fields of training and logistics.
“(c) take concrete measures to enhance the availability, interoperability, flexibility and deployability of their forces, in particular by identifying common objectives regarding the commitment of forces, including possibly reviewing their national decision-making procedures.”
“(d) work together to ensure that they take the necessary measures to make good, including through multinational approaches, and without prejudice to undertakings in this regard within the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the shortfalls perceived in the framework of the ‘Capability Development Mechanism.’”
“(e) take part, where appropriate, in the development of major joint or European equipment programmes in the framework of the European Defence Agency.”
Annex III – Governance 1. Participating Member States remain at the center of the decision making process while coordinating with the High Representative
PESCO is a framework driven by participating Member States and remains primarily within their remit. Transparency is ensured for non-participating EU Member States. To ensure a proper coordination of PESCO with the overall common security and defence policy (CSDP), of which it is an integral part, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy will be fully involved in proceedings relating to PESCO.
The High Representative will be in charge of managing the annual assessment called for by the European Council and laid out in part 4 below. The EEAS, including the EU Military Staff (EUMS), and the EDA will ensure the Secretariat of the PESCO in close coordination with the European External Action Service (EEAS) Deputy Secretary General on CSDP and Crisis Response.
At the end of every phase (2021; 2025) a Strategic Review exercise will be conducted assessing the respect of the commitments foreseen to have been fulfilled during that phase, deciding on the launching of the next phase and updating, if needed, the commitments for the next phase.