2 – World War I Leaders
BSSB.BE history.com 18.08.2016
Foch led French forces at the First Battle of the Marne, but was removed from command after the Battle of the Somme in 1916. In 1918, he was named Allied Supreme Commander, coordinating the war’s final offensives. Foch was present at the armistice ending the war in November, 1918.
Haig commanded British forces at the Battle of the Somme, losing 60,000 men on the first day. By the end of the campaign, the Allies had lost more than 600,000 men–and advanced fewer than eight miles. Haig rebounded with success in 1918, but remains one of the most controversial generals of the war
In 1911, Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty. In this position, he worked to strengthen the British navy. He was pushed out of office after the disastrous 1915 Gallipoli campaign, in modern-day Turkey, which resulted in more than 250,000 Allied casualties.
As prime minister of France from 1917 to 1920, Clemenceau worked to restore French morale and concentrate Allied military forces under Ferdinand Foch. He led the French delegation to the peace talks ending World War I, during which he insisted on harsh reparation payments and German disarmament.
Petain became a national hero in France after his success at the Battle of Verdun during World War I. However, during World War II, Pétain headed the Vichy regime, a pro-German puppet government, and as a result has a mixed and deeply controversial legacy.
Von Hindenburg was recalled to service at the outbreak of World War I. By 1916, he and Erich von Ludendorff had assumed near total control of the German war effort, which they led until defeat in 1918. He later served as German president, and named Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933.
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*Youtube – Human Intelligence: The Flynn Effect | Dr. James Flynn and Stefan Molyneux. Dr. James R. Flynn is emeritus professor of political studies at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand and author, most recently, of What is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect. Flynn is best known for the Flynn effect, the continued year-on-year rise of IQ scores in all parts of the world. Flynn’s research combines political and moral philosophy with psychology to clarify problems such as justifying humane ideals and whether it makes sense to rank races and classes by merit.